Asteraceae family – the Daisy Family

As I mentioned last week I will be exploring the different plant families and their benefits.  This week is one of my favourite family – the daisy family.  This was originally known as the composite family and contains the largest number of plants all over the world.  I am sure that there will be several members of this amazing family nearby – it is such a beautiful day why not go out and explore to see what is growing near you.

The Asteraceae family contains mainly herbs and is the most evolutionary advanced plant family.  A lot of the species within this family can be used as medicine, several species are cultivated for food such as chicory, lettuce and artichoke and sunflowers (for their nutritious seeds), plants are used economically too – did you know that the oil from marigolds is used in the cola making industry? and to top of their amazing versatility a lot of the species produce high quantities of nectar which benefit bees, various pollinators and wildlife in general

The name Asteraceae is derived from the type genus: “Aster”, though this family was also known as “Composite” which refers to the this family’s characteristic flowers.  The flower heads contain numerous individual sessile flowers which we see as a whole.  Examples of medicinal herbs in this family include:                    

Dandelion in full bloom. A great digestive herb to be avoided if you suffer from gallstones.

Dandelion in full bloom. A great digestive herb to be avoided if you suffer from gallstones.

 

Marigolds, seem as sunshine herbs are great for boosting both mind and body

Marigolds, seem as sunshine herbs are great for boosting both mind and body

Other examples include chamomile, echinacea, wormwood, mugwort, sunflower, goldenrod, yarrow, burdock and milk thistle.

The constituents of the Asteraceae Family

Prominent common active constituents include sesquiterpene lactones.  There are over 3000 sesquiterpene lactones which we know of so far and a large majority are from this plant family.  These constituents have anti inflammatory and anti microbial actions and they tend to concentrate in leaves and flowers.  The down side of sesquiterpene lactones is that they can cause contact dermatitis in humans and the most common plant allergen in contact dermatitis is plants within this family although scientific research is looking into their use as anti-cancer agents.

Other common constituents include the volatile oils – these are monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes and are commonly known as essential oil.  Fragrant flowers in the asteraceae family will contain these – chamomile is a great example of this.

Chamomile grows wild in Grimsby but can be commonly misidentified with pineapple weed - this is from the same family but has no scent.

Chamomile grows wild in Grimsby but can be commonly misidentified with pineapple weed – this is from the same family but has no scent.

Here are some recipes which utilise plants from this family:

Dandelion Burdock Early Spring Cleanser

You will need:

2 heaped dessert spoons of dandelion root

2 heaped dessert spoons of burdock root

2 large slices of lemon, chopped into strips

1 teaspoon of honey

1 pint of water

Just put all the ingredients except the honey into a pan and simmer for ten minutes, adding the sugar once you’ve taken the mixture off the hob.  You can drink this mixture hot or cold – its a really pleasant drink either way, but is certainly more refreshing drunk cold.  I’m going to try this with slices of fresh root ginger in the next batch, as well as some dandelion leaf!   The nice thing about this mix is that you can boil the ingredients back up with another pint of water for a slightly less punchy but just as refreshing mixture, then compost the remaining herbs.

The daisy has medicinal and culinary uses

The daisy has medicinal and culinary uses

The common daisy is considered to have astringent, demulcent, expectorant, digestive and tonic properties. Used internally, Daisy can be an effective herbal remedy against cold, cough and digestive complaints. In form of an infusion, Common Daisy is beneficial in cases of arthritis, catarrh, hepatic and renal disorders, diarrhoea and rheumatism. Its external use, as a poultice or addition to bath, can help in cases of wound healing, rashes, wounds and skin inflammations.

Use young daisy leaves raw in spring salads.  The leaves are excellent as a cooked spring vegetable, and in soups and sauces and as flavouring or seasoning.

Some countries use daisy leaves as a pot herb – a vegetable used to flavour dishes.

DAISY GREENS

Pick young daisy leaves and wash then quickly in slightly salted water.  Put a little water in a pan and add a pinch of salt.  When boiling put in the greens.  Cover and cook for about 7-10 minutes.  Serve with a dab of butter and freshly ground black pepper.

I hope that you are enjoying this series 🙂

Trotula of Salerno recipes

Trotula of Salerno was a female physician, alleged to have been the first female professor of medicine, teaching in the southern Italian port of Salerno, which was at that time the most important center of medical learning in Europe.  She is regarded as the world’s first gynecologist.

Her works on women’s health, collectively called The Trotula, served as the primary manuscripts on women’s health in Europe for more than 400 years, and set the course for the practice of women’s medicine for centuries.

Here are some recipes from her work which are still applicable today 🙂

Marigold ointment

500ml of infused marigold oil (Calendula officinalis)

40g cocoa butter

40g beeswax

Warm the oil gently, melt in the cocoa butter and beeswax and stir until melts, allow to cool where it will thicken into an ointment/salve.  You can store this in sterilised glass jars.

Use for wounds, infected grazes, athletes foot and burns 🙂

This next one is great for fighting off infections which are more prevalent as the weather changes:

25g coltsfoot leaves

25g fennel

10g fresh ginger root

225g honey

900ml boiling water.

Add the herbs to the water and simmer till the liquid has reduces to 300ml.  Once the liquid has cooled add the honey.  For people who have a cough, are feeling chills or are experiencing catarrh. Take 5ml three to four times a day.

Healing womb

10g ladies mantle

10g mugwort

Make a herbal infusion/tea with the herbs and take for up to 3 months to strengthen and repair the womb – do not take in pregnancy.

Infertility tea

15g marshmallow root

15g mugwort

600ml water

Decoct the root on a hob simmering for 10 minutes then add the mugwort and take off the heat to make a herbal infusion/tea.  Use 1 cup of the herbal infusion to douche twice a week having a nourishing and tonifying effect.

Improve Circulation

10g dried hawthorn flowers

10g dried lime flowers

15g lemon balm

Mix together the dried herbs and place a 5ml spoonful of the mixture in a cup of boiling water, allow to steep for 10 minutes.  Strain and drink one cup daily for 4 weeks, rest for 1 week then repeat the dose.

I hope you have found these recipes interesting – As a herbalist these are herbs which are still used today for similar conditions.  As a pioneering woman she was definitely ahead of her time and intelligent in her understanding of herbs and how they are used to support health and wellbeing.

Herbal Treatments Used During Menopause

The menopause is a natural part of female life and women should take it as an opportunity to reassess diet and lifestyle.  It is defined by a woman going for one year without a menstrual period.  There are three phases to the menopause; the peri-menopasue – menopausal symptoms leading to the eventual cessation of menstruation, the menopause – the absence of menstruation for a full year and post-menopause – the cessation of menstruation and sex hormones from the ovaries.  Menstruation can be irregular due to the sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone fluctuating and eventually declining the transition of which may last up to 5 years.  Genitourinary tissues are oestrogen dependant and symptoms during this transitional period can vary in intensity and frequency from person to person.  Variable symptoms include hot flushes, changing moods, irritability, depression, cognitive changes, vaginal dryness, decreased libido as well as pain during sexual intercourse, reduced energy, sleep disturbances and weight gain.  Tissue atrophy due to lack of oestrogen can also increase the risk and frequency of infections, increase urgency and pain during urination as well as cause stress incontinence.  Are you experiencing the menopause – do any of these symptoms fit with how you are feeling?

symptoms of menopause

The menopause is perceived as a deficiency disease – something which I disagree with, it is a natural part of female life!!  The conventional medical approach to treating menopausal symptoms consist mainly of prescribing hormone replacement therapies (HRT) which are external sources of hormones possibly equine in origin (from horses!!).  Studies have proposed that HRT may only be beneficial for first 16 weeks before becoming no different to placebo and side effects of prescribing oestrogen replacements include increasing the risk hormone affected cancers as well as gall bladder disease and thromboembolic disease.  Progesterone replacement can increase cholesterol levels, oedema, weight and bleeding.

oestrogen and progesterone during menopause

It is recommended that more foods containing phytoestrogens should be included in the diet during the transition from mother to wise women as they can help to reduce the frequency and severity of hot flushes.  Epidemiological studies show low incidences of breast cancer where there’s a high intake in soy.  Phytoestrogens can be classified as isoflavones and lignans and are diphenolic compounds, the phenolic ring can bind to oestrogen receptors mimicking oestrogen.  Isoflavones are found in soy, pulses, cereals and legumes – and although isoflavones are beneficial I tend to recommend that people reduce the amount of cereals, beans, soy and pulses in their diet as they can cause inflammation.  Lignans are found in seeds, cereals, fruit, vegetables and grains such as alphafa – more accessible and digestible food items (minus grains).  Flaxseed and evening primrose oil are also oestrogenic.

Evening Primrose in Flower

Evening Primrose in Flower

Oestrogenic herbs can also contain phytoestrogens.  They work differently from pharmaceutical drugs and are deemed safer by alternative practitioners such as herbalists and nutritionists as they don’t flood the body with external hormones; instead they seem to help the body utilise the oestrogen and progesterone available more efficiently rebalancing the tissue state naturally.  Biochemically they bind to oestrogen receptors and can induce transcription of oestrogen responsive genes.  I have written about the biochemical effects oestrogenic herbs can have on the body which you can access towards the end of this blog.  Oestrogen has a physiological action on reproductive tissues and on bones, the central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system.  Phytoestrogens show weakly oestrogenic activity, can conserve bone and show antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and anti-carcinogenic actions as well as reducing cholesterol.

Phytoestrogenic plants can help to stabilise a woman’s hormones.  Herbs with hormone normalising phytoestrogens include evening primrose oil, red clover – Trifolium pratense, liquorice root – Glycyrrhiza glabra, agnus castus – Vitex agnus-castus, hops – Humulus lupulus, oats – Avena sativa, elder – Sambucus nigra, and sage – Salvia officinalis there are hundreds of plant sources.  Evening primrose oil is hormone regulating, containing alpha and gamma linoleic acid which contribute to the reduction of vasomotor symptoms such as hot flushes; essential fatty acids are used to relieve menopausal symptoms.  Liquorice demonstrates oestrogenic activity and can be relaxing or stimulating, energetically it is cooling and moist.

Red clover is a common wildflower in Britain and is found in urban areas as well as in the countryside

Red clover is a common wildflower in Britain and is found in urban areas as well as in the countryside

Red Clover demonstrates oestrogenic activity but scientific studies show positive and negative results on its effectiveness to reduce menopausal symptoms.  I think that this may be due to how the studies were executed, the number of people in the study and their lifestyles and choices prior to undertaking the study.  Variables can include a multitude of everyday choices including what they ate, previous health, family history and levels of stress at the time of the study.  The solidity of the study will come under scrutiny too – is it a placebo, double blind study?  I also feel that the social views of the people who ran the studies should be taken into account.  Hot flushes occur most frequently at night and affect up to 80% menopausal women they can last up to 4 minutes but feel like longer when women experience them.  In a positive study of red clover a reduction in number of hot flushes was seen compared to placebo but only showed a statistical difference when documented, explanation of the results included to be coumestin a compound of phytoestrogen.  Care should be taken when using red clover as it contains coumarins and can affect warfarin intake.  Dosage can be 12g of dried herb or equivalent daily.

Dong quai – Angelica sinensis is a hormone regulator that doesn’t contain phytoestrogens.  It enhances the body’s endogenous oestrogen production to help to address symptoms including hot flushes and sweating.  Prescriptions can treat painful or suppressed menstruation and hot flushes and relieve menopausal depression and anxiety especially if symptoms are related to deficient kidneys.  Mixed results in several studies include statements that dong quai is no different to placebo.  The herb may potentiate warfarin and caution should be taken if patients have oestrogen sensitive cancers.  Dosage is 4-6ml tincture three times daily.

Uterine tonics can be given during the menopause to support reproductive organs and tissues whilst physiological and endocrine changes take place.  Vaginal dryness is a common complaint during the menopause; uterine tonics would assist to reduce this discomforting issue with vulneraries.  Amphoteric herbs improve the tone of the uterus, regulating bleeding; dong quai is amphoteric.  Uterine stimulants improve the tone of the uterine muscles and tissues and include the herbs yarrow – Achillea millefolium, mugwort – Artemisia vulgaris and agnus castus.  Other uterine tonics are black cohosh – Cimicifuga racemosa, motherwort – Leonurus cardiaca and raspberry leaves – Rubus ideaus.

Leonurus cardiac - or Motherwort is a favourite of bees :)

Leonurus cardiac – or Motherwort is a favourite of bees 🙂

Motherwort is a moderate strength relaxing uterine tonic, anti-spasmodic, carminative and emmenagogue.  It can be a relaxant or stimulant dependant on the needs of the body and is defined energetically as cooling and drying.  Motherwort is a cardio-tonic an action supported by flavones.  It supports the heart and circulation, stimulates and strengthens the liver and is prescribed to reduce hot flushes, regulate hormones, relieve anxiety and reduce palpitations.

If the menopausal patient experiences anxiety or tension relaxing nervines can be utilised.  Nervines can also relieve menopausal symptoms including forgetfulness, nervousness, weepiness, irritability, lack of concentration, anger, excitability and panic attacks.  Nervine relaxants work directly on the nervous system reducing stress and putting the person at ease.  When prescribing, each patient need to be treated as an individual, secondary actions and medicinal uses of herbs should be taken into account.  Relaxing nervines include: lemon balm – Mellissa officinalis, chamomile – Matricaria recutita, lime flowers – Tilia x cordata, passionflower – Passiflora incarnata, skullcap – Scutellaria lateriflora, St Johns wort – Hypericum perforatum and wild yam – Dioscorea villosa.

Dioscorea villosa or wild yam is not a native to the UK

Dioscorea villosa or wild yam is not a native to the UK

Wild yam contains diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin; clinical studies have found that the body can convert this into progesterone and dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) which is a 19-carbon natural steroid hormone.  Its phytoestrogens can relieve night sweating, hot flushes and regulate hormones. Wild yam’s sapogenin content helps to relieve spasms, dysmenorrhea and uterine pain.

Anti-depressant herbs can relieve hormone-related depression and anxiety experienced during the menopause.  This phase of life affects a woman physically, mentally and emotionally, when experiencing depression during the menopause insomnia, poor appetite, weight loss and low energy can be experienced.  Antidepressant herbs include oats, ginseng – Panax quinquefolius, lavender – Lavendula angustifolia, rosemary – Rosmarinus officinalis, St John’s wort, vervain – Verbena officinalis and black cohosh.  Clinical studies have shown that St John’s Wort does relieve mild to moderate depression in menopausal women.

Bitters are effective medicines; energetically they are cooling and drying, stimulating digestive secretions throughout the body.  Prescribed generally for the menopause as a stimulant, digestion is a vital function of the body and it’s efficiency impacts on our health.  Bitter can also improve water retention or depression related to a sluggish digestion.  Several bitter herbs include: barberry – Berberis vulgaris, boneset – Eupatorium perfoliatum, dandelion – Taraxacum officinale, feverfew – Tanacetum parthenium, goldenseal – Hydrastis canadensis, holy thistle – Cnicus benedictus and mugwort. Mugwort - Artemisia vulgaris

Dandelion is useful as a diuretic reducing water retention.  Energetically, dandelion is cooling and drying with tonic and astringent properties.

Herbalists such as myself can prescribe restorative, supportive and nutritious herbs such as oats and nettles – Urtica dioica.  Both herbs can assist women going through the menopause.  Oats helps to strengthen the nerves, promote sleep and reduce stress levels as well as nourish the bones.  Nettles strengthen the adrenals but also supports the liver and kidneys, reduces anxiety and night sweats too.  Energetically nettles are cooling and drying, a true stimulant with tonic and astringent actions.

Nutritious nettles - Urtica dioica

Nutritious nettles – Urtica dioica

The menopause varies in severity from person to person due to many biopsychosocial factors including diet, exercise, personality type, size, lifestyle and levels of stress; stress can deplete the adrenal glands and affect their functioning.  Herbs like Ashwaganda – Withania somnifera can restore adrenal balance acting as a tonic for overworked people improving general and sexual debility supporting the adrenals during their “resistance” and “exhaustion” phases.  Other Adaptogens that can benefit women during the menopause includes liquorice, Siberian ginseng – Eleutherococcus senticosus, schisandra – Schisandra chinensis, wild yam and astragalus – Astragalus membranaceus; all help restore the adrenal glands.  Astragalus works as a vasodilator and schisandra supports the liver as well as the adrenals and improves memory, mood and sleep.

Ginseng helps us to adapt

Ginseng helps us to adapt

Research on ginseng has shown benefits improving sleep, mood and sense of wellbeing.  Energetically it is a true relaxant herb with tonic properties.  Hong Sam Red Ginseng is the root is steamed prior to being dried; this form of the herb is effective in the treatment of mild-moderate perimenopausal symptoms.  Results can be dependent on the correct prescribing of ginseng: P. quinquefolius contain phytoestrogens which can be converted into female hormones whilst regulating immunity, P. ginseng’s phytoestrogens can be converted into male hormones and is hypertensive and Eleutherococcus senticosus doesn’t show hormonal qualities. 

As a specific remedy there is a lot of clinical research on black cohosh – Cimicifuga racemosa doesn’t contain phytoestrogens but assists to balance oestrogen levels, reduce menopausal symptoms and improve emotional states.  Positive results have been reported from clinical studies on its effectiveness in reducing menopausal symptoms.  The herb may cause headaches and stomach upsets and shouldn’t be given to women with liver disease due to its possible hepatotoxicity; the dosage is recommended at 40-80mg daily for no more than 6 months.

Black cohosh can help to alleviate vasomotor symptoms such as hot flushes and sweating.  Black cohosh corresponds medicinally to the reproductive system and it’s relaxing or stimulating adapting to requirements.  It is a moderately strength relaxing nervine, alterative, antispasmodic and diaphoretic herb.  It is used successfully in treating hot flushes in cancer patients, the active constituents include terpenes and glycosides which may function as Selective Estrogenic Receptor Modulators.  The oestrogenic effect is due to its physiological activity on serotonin receptors in the body and may explain hot flushes and mood improving.  Black cohosh doesn’t stimulate breast or uterine tissue; the mechanism may be via stimulation of the central nervous system.  It is proven to be as effective as oestrogen in the reduction of menopausal symptoms and better than placebo at reducing flushes.  Clinical trials have shown improvement in hot flushes, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunction and sweating, although side effects can include gastrointestinal disturbances, bradycardia, headaches and nausea.

There are many other herbs which can support a woman through the transition of the menopause.  Herbs prescriptions should be tailored to the individual’s case history and health requirements.  The menopause can be viewed energetically as a hot condition with symptoms varying from wet (hot flushes) to dry (vaginal moistness).  Many strategies can be utilised to ease the patient from peri- to post-menopausal and care is needed when mixing oestrogenic herbs and pharmaceutical oestrogenic hormone replacement.   Women with hormone-dependant cancers such as breast cancer or with any contraindications to HRT or venous thromboembolism should consult a professional when using oestrogenic phyto-medicinals.  Herbs without phytoestrogens are available to support the patient including several bitters, adaptogens and uterine tonics.  Although scientific studies can be found to discredit several of the herbs mentioned research into herbalism isn’t extensive enough.  The use of herbs in the treatment of menopausal symptoms addresses social, emotional, physical and mental factors; symptoms which cannot be measured empirically.  The vulnerability of osteoarthritis and countless herbs haven’t been mentioned in this blog, this isn’t to disvalue them, herbal medicine can support and balance women offering preventative options for osteoarthritis and many other symptoms associated with menopause.

 Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnoses

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is used to treat menopausal symptoms, their diagnosed definitions of menopausal women include:

Kidney yin deficiency:  The most common diagnosis, women suffer with hair loss, light vaginal discharge, vaginal dryness, dizziness, hot flushes, night sweats and insomnia among other symptoms.  Their tongue is red with a light coating and their pulse is thin and rapid.

Liver qi stagnation: Women experience irritability, hypochondriac distension, constipation, palpitations, insomnia and emotional instability.  Their tongue is red with a thin yellow coating and they have a wiry pulse.

Blood deficiency: Women suffer with dizziness, hot flushes, sweating and insomnia, dry skin with a sallow complexion, emotional instability and myalgia.  Their tongue is pale with a thin coating and they have a thready pulse.

Uprising deficiency heat:  Menopausal women who suffer with severe night sweating, hot flushes, irritability, dizziness and nervousness.  They have a red tongue with a thin coating and a thready rapid pulses.

Kidney yang deficiency: This is the least common diagnosis in TCM and women experience heavy menstrual bleeding or ceased menstruation, soreness, oedema of face and limbs, cold limbs and appearance, loose stools, polyuria and urinary incontinence.  Their tongue is pale with a thin coating and their pulse is deep thready and weak.

Biomedical physiological effects of herbs on the body during menopause

There are several ways in which phyto-medicinals can support and influence the body to improve symptoms and rebalance homeostasis:

  1. Herbs can bind to oestrogen receptors in the body and include: Pimenta dioica, Artemisia absinthium, Plantago major, Tanacetum parthenium, Hibiscus sabdariffa.
  2. Herbs can induce transcription of the oestrogen responsive reporter genes and include: Pimenta dioica, Artemisia absinthium, Plantago major, Tanacetum parthenium.
  3. Herbs can induce transcription of (oestrogen responsive genes) pS2, PTGES and PR and include: Pimenta dioica, Tanacetum parthenium Smilax domingensis, Artemisia absinthium.
  4. Herbs can modulate the effects of estradiol on (oestrogen responsive genes) pS2, PR and PTGES expression and include: Smilax domingensis, Pimenta dioica, Artemisia absinthium, Plantago major, Hibiscus sabdariffa.

 

References: 

Bartram, T (1998) Bartram’s Encyclopaedia of Herbal Medicine. European Commonwealth. Constable & Robinson Ltd.

Bergner, P (2005) Fundamentals of Vitalism Seminar 2006 North American Institute of Medical Herbalism. Available from: http://naimh.com/NAIMH-Actions-and-Energetic-notes-2006.pdf [Accessed: 17th December 2010]

Brockie, J (2008) ‘Alternative Approaches to the Menopause’ Practice Nursing. 19 (4) 172-176

Chen, J (2010) The Integrative Approach to Menopause [Online] Lotus institute of integrative medicine. Available from: https://elotus.org/lotus_2011/downloads/articles/2010/pdf_2010/07-06_John_Menopause_Final.pdf [Accessed 15th December 2010]

Doyle, B. Frasor, J. Bellows, L. Locklear, T. Perez, A. Gomez-Laurito, J. Mahady, G (2009) ‘Estrogenic Effects of Herbal Medicines from Costa Rica Used for the Management of Menopausal Symptoms’ Menopause. 16 (4) 748-755

Elhelw, B (2006) ‘Non-Hormonal Therapies for the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms’ Middle East Fertility Society Journal 11 (1) 1-17

Friedman, M (2010) Table of Adaptogenic Herbs Used to Treat Adrenal Dysfunction. [Online] Available from: http://www.restorativemedicine.com/books/fundamentals-of-naturopathic-endocrinology/professionals/adrenal-metabolism-disorders/table-of-adaptogenic-herbs-used-to-treat-adrenal-gland-dysfunction [Accessed: 5th January 2011]

Hoffman, D (2003) Medical Herbalism. The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. India. Healing Arts Press.

Hudson, T (1999) Women’s Encyclopaedia of Natural Medicine: Alternative Therapies and Integrative Medicine. United States of America. Keats.

Joint Formulary Committee (2007) British National Formulary. Germany, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and RPS Publishing

Jung Kim, H. Kim, H. Shin, J. Ku, S (2009) ‘Current Status of Anti-Aging Medicine, Especially Involving Management of the Menopause as a Component of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Korea’ Anti-aging medicine. 6 (10) 95-101

Keville, K (2000) ‘Managing Menopause, Naturally’ Better nutrition. 62 (1) 56

Levy, S (2002) What Alternative Remedies Work for Menopause? [Online] Drug Topics.  Available from: http://drugtopics.modernmedicine.com/drugtopics/Women’s+Health/What-alternative-remedies-work-for-menopause/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/116711?contextCategoryId=7738 [Accessed 5th January 2011]

Martin, K. Pinkerton, J. Santen, R (2009) Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Menopausal Symptoms [Online] Available from: http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/94/10/0-a [Accessed 15th December 2010]

Moore, M (2005) Principles and Practice of Constitutional Physiology for Herbalists. [e-book] Bisbee, Arizona. Southwest School of Botanical Medicine.  Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/ManualsMM/HRBENRGT.pdf [Accessed: 4th January 2011]

Prestwood, K (2003) ‘Editorial: the Search for Alternative Therapies for Menopausal Women: Estrogenic Effects of Herbs’ The journal of clinical endocrinology & metabolism. 88 (9) 4075-4076

Rodgers, C (1997) The Women’s Guide to Herbal Medicine [Online] Available from: http://www.womens-herbal-guide.com/Publication/WHG%20Chp%207%20Menopause.pdf [Accessed 3rd December 2010]

Romm, A (2010) Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. China. Churchill Livingstone.

Rose, K (2008) Bitters Blogparty (with Bitter Herbs Differentials) [Online] Available from: http://animahealingarts.org/?m=200807 [Accessed 4th January 2011]

Smolinski, D. Wollner, D. Orlowski, J. Curcio, J. Nevels, J. Kim, L (2005) ‘A Pilot Study to Examine a Combination Botanical for the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms’ The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 11 (3) 483-489

Trickey, R (2003) Women, Hormones and the Menstrual Cycle. Herbal and Medical Solutions from Adolescence to Menopause. South Australia. Griffin Press.

Weed, S (2000) Menopausal Years the Wise Woman Way. [Online] Available from: http://www.susunweed.com/susunweedarticles.htm#pagetop9 [Accessed: 5th January 2010]

Weyers, E (2010) Black Cohosh. [Online] Available from: http://www.suite101.com/content/black-cohash-a192723 [Accessed: 14th December 2010]

Williamson, E (2003) Potter’s Herbal Cyclopaedia. Britain. The C. W. Daniel Company Limited.

Magical Mugwort

Artemisia vulgaris is commonly known as Mugwort.  Its medicinal actions have been used by different societies, both eastern and western for thousands of years.  A member of the Asteraceae plant family; it is a dicotyledon as it has two seed leaves, reticular veination on its pinnately-lobed leaves and a tap root.  It is an aromatic herbaceous perennial, coming back every year.  Once winter has set in the woody stems can be pruned right back ready for regrown in the spring.  It is fully hardy and native to northern temperate regions.  Mugwort’s petiole leaves are dark green, segmented with pointed lance shapes with white undersides.  The leaf size ranges from 5-8cm long and are attached to reddy purple stems, the plant can grow as tall as 1.7 metres with a spread of up to 1 metre.  Mugwort can be found growing wild in hedgerows, roadsides, riverbanks and wastelands.

Mugwort - Artemisia vulgaris

Mugwort – Artemisia vulgaris

The qualities of Mugwort, according to Nicolas Culpeper, are that it is hot and dry in the second degree.  This is also backed up in The Complete German Commission E Monographs which writes about the hot quality of the herb.  Culpeper goes on to say that it is ruled by the planet Venus, which is regarded as cold and moist.  Venus corresponds with the reproductive system the breasts, the kidneys – genitourinary system and the throat.  Culpeper is quoted saying Mugwort can “…help the delivery of the birth and expel the afterbirth.”  His understanding of the herb was that it was used for women; a herb of Venus which assisted in maintaining the reproductive system.

Mugwort is used within Tradition Chinese Medicine (TCM) as a herbal medicine but more commonly known within their practice of acupuncture.  The therapy of moxacombustion uses Artemisia vulgaris for similar purposes as noted above.  Compressed, or loose, dried leaf is burned briefly on the skin to warm the bodies meridian points up, it’s reputed hot and dry action is used to increase fetal activity and correct breach in late pregnancy.  This is when the herb is burned externally to a specific acupuncture point located on the foot.  It is also used within TCM to heat up internal cold.  Its warming properties heat the acupuncture points where it is placed, helping the body to remove any blockages of energy in the meridian pathways.

Mugwort’s medicinal properties are written about in Chinese medical texts dating back to the first century AD, as well as in Greek and Roman texts.  Roman soldiers planted it along the roadsides; they would put leaves into their sandals to soothe their sore feet whilst marching.  Its diaphoretic action is used to treat the early stages of cold, fevers and influenza.  Artemisia vulgaris’ effect on the female reproductive system is well known traditionally, used as mentioned above as well as, being used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for menstrual complaints.  It is also used within other herbal medicine systems for menstrual obstruction, regulation and menopause.

Hatfield also describes how Mugwort is used for various types of convulsions or fits including epilepsy and palsy.  This is also true for Bartram who prescribed the herb for convulsions in children and to reduce the severity of an epileptic attack.  Anglo-Saxons called it the ‘Midge plant’ as it repels insects this is also true for worms, fungal infections and malaria.  You can dry the leaves or stems of Mugwort and hang in cupboards and wardrobes to deter moths from eating fabrics.

This herb has an amazing presence - when allowed to flourish it grows tall and strong

This herb has an amazing presence – when allowed to flourish it grows tall and strong

Other traditional uses include stimulating the appetite as it stimulates secretions of gastric juices, nervous complaints, gastrointestinal complaints including colic, diarrohea, moist constipation, cramps, hysteria and also as a laxative for people with obesity.

It is a plants therapeutic actions that indicate its medicinal use; Artemisia vulgaris is an aromatic, bitter herb, its bitterness acts as a stimulant to the stomach and digestion increasing gastric juices and bile enabling the stimulation of the appetite and working as a laxative in certain cases.  Mugwort is also an emmenagogue, which regulates menstruation stimulating the uterus, contraindications include when trying to conceive or when already pregnant as it can cause an abortifacient effect so should be avoided.  Side effects have been reported but aren’t common.

Both emmenagogue and diaphoretic medicines are regarded as hot in quality; Mugwort’s diaphoretic action increases perspiration as an eliminatory function of the liver and can be used, for example, in fever management, stimulating the circulation and distributing heat through to the sweat glands to cleanse the body of toxins.

The plant is also seen to have a tonic re-mineralising and diuretic action.  A diuretic is a substance which increases the amount of urine produced by the kidneys drawing toxins out and cleansing the body.  Another known therapeutic action of Artemisia vulgaris is its nervine properties, assisting to relieve stress and tension and alleviating nervous or mental problems including hysteria.  It also helps to improve mood working as an anti-depressant.  Modern clinical trials have proved that Mugwort expels intestinal parasites, relaxes contractions, eases diarrohea and eases airway disorders including abdominal colic and asthma.

The leaves are rarely attacked by garden pests and make a great deterrent for moths in a wardrobe or linen closet

The leaves are rarely attacked by garden pests and make a great deterrent for moths in a wardrobe or linen closet

It is a plants biologically active components which enables these therapeutic actions to take place; generally these active constituents come from the secondary metabolites within the plant.  Mugwort’s complex phytochemistry includes alkaloids, courmarins, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and terpenes.  Alkaloids defend a plant from over eating by herbivores, they contain nitrogen which is why they are alkaline and have a relaxing (Nervine) effect on the central nervous system.

Phenols include tannins, flavonoids and coumarins.  Flavonoids are a product of the shikimic acid pathway, their primary function within plants is pigmentation particularly yellow and white, they are also an important part of a human’s diet, flavonoids have therapeutic effects regarding health including anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic and an oestrogen antagonist. These constituents point towards Artemisia vulgaris’ medicinal usage to alleviate spasms, expel intestinal worms and affinity with the female reproductive system.

Coumarins are also formed within the shikimic acid pathway; they reduce inflammation, including that of intercellular fluid within the tissues (oedema).  They also act to enhance the body’s immune system and reduce spasms, enabling Artemisia vulgaris to work medicinally on the tremors of Parkinson’s disease, reducing the severity and duration of fits and assisting the body to fight cold infections in their early stages.  Tannins have an astringent, drying effect which corresponds to the qualities of Mugwort; this will assist in the easing of diarrohea as researched by Khan and Gilani.  Of the terpenes within Artemisia vulgaris the highest concentration of monoterpenes occur during the plants flowering season and the highest concentration of sequiterpenes occur prior to the flowering season commencing.  This has been confirmed by several clinical studies.

A biochemical breakdown of the plant lists 77 different constituents and minerals (Moore, 2005) including:

Calcium                       8,000-11,000   ppm

Iron                              1,200-3,900                 ppm

Manganese*                60-70                           ppm

Phosphorus                 270-700                       ppm

Potassium                   31,400-41,000 ppm

ppm = parts per million

Information available from: http://www.swsbm.com/Constituents/Artemisia_vulgaris.txt

*Manganese has anti-alcoholic, anti-anemic, anti-diabetic, anti-discotic, anti-dyskinetic and anti-epileptic properties

Magical Mugwort

Magical Mugwort

An interesting journal article explores Mugwort’s ability to successfully control populations of Golden Apple Snails which ruin crops of rice.  The property Vulgarone B (an active constituent found in Mugwort’s biochemical make up) is as effective, but works faster, than the current treatment to lessen the damage caused by these snails.  The study states that this constituent also works on different species of snail as well as confirming Artemisia vulgaris’ action of expelling parasitic worms.  Vulgarone B also shows anti-fungal actions.

In conclusion, Artemisia vulgaris has been presented as a hot and dry herb which works on the genitourinary system of the body.  Mugwort has emmenagogue, diuretic and diaphoretic actions.  Historically it has been used for thousands of years for menstrual problems and to allay the commencement of cold.  The constituents of Mugwort show evidence-based research on its therapeutic actions, confirming what past herbalists knew instinctually.  Trials are still being held but more can be learned about this fascinating and complex phytochemical herb.  It is seen as an ecological plant star and once it has been growing in your garden you will notice that several native plants will also start growing there too.  Since Mugwort has been in my company she has brought dog rose, blackthorn, orange hawkbit, wood sorrel, violets and many other amazing British wildflowers.

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Moore, M (updated 09.2005) Master Genus Index [Online] Tuscan, Arizona.  Michael Moore and Donna Chesner.  Available from: http://www.swsbm.com/Constituents/Artemisia_vulgaris.txt

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